VCP: Animations & Movies

3D rendering of a copepod 1st antenna


3D Surface Rendition Images provided by Marie Bundy Animation created by Corey Accardo.

Tethered Capture


Here we see the carnivorous copepod, Euchaeta rimana (2.4 mm), restrained on a tether so that it remains within the field of view. A smaller copepod, Acartia (0.7 mm), makes contact with the predator but that does not trigger the attack response. When the prey escapes and sheds a wake toward the predator, then the predator reaches out with its maxillipeds and grabs the small copepod prey. The prey is then seen as a small morsel being shoved into the mandibles of the predatory copepod. (Videos done by J. Yen in collaboration with J.R. Strickler).

Tethered Escape Behavior

High-speed video (1000 fps) of the leg movements of Calanus pacificus. Note the sequence of coordinated movements of the 5 pairs of swimming legs. The name "swimming legs" is misleading as they are only used in the escape or lunge movements while the cephalic appendages are used in normal swimming.(Video recorded by S. Wilson)

Untethered Capture

This sequence shows how a freely swimming predatory copepod, Euchaeta rimana (2.4 mm, central image), lunges after another smaller copepod prey (Acartia, 0.7 mm, images to right of larger copepod). The Acartia was entrained in the feeding current of Euchaeta. When it detected the presence of the predator, it jumped away and shed a jet-like wake toward the predator. The predator sensed the strength and directionality of the prey's wake and lunged at it accurately to capture it in 3D space (capture occurred in upper right corner of frame; Doall et al. submitted). Lunge is much faster in relative speed than that of a running cheetah. (Videos done by J. Yen in collaboration with J.R. Strickler).

Untethered Escape Behavior

This sequence shows how a freely swimming predatory copepod, Euchaeta rimana (2.4 mm, central image), lunges after another smaller copepod prey (Acartia, 0.7 mm, images to right of larger copepod). The Acartia was entrained in the feeding current of Euchaeta. When it detected the presence of the predator, it jumped away and shed a jet-like wake toward the predator. The predator sensed the strength and directionality of the prey's wake and lunged at it accurately to capture it in 3D space (capture occurred in upper right corner of frame; Doall et al. submitted). Lunge is much faster in relative speed than that of a running cheetah. (Videos done by J. Yen in collaboration with J.R. Strickler).

Horizontal Spin

Computer-Generated Horizontal Spin Appendages in neutral position.

Fly-Around

Computer-Generated Fly-Around Appendages in neutral position.

Computer Visualization of Capture Behavior

Computer Visualization of Capture Behavior.

Computer Visualization of Capture Behavior

Computer Visualization of Capture Behavior

Computer Visualization of Capture of Prey

Computer Visualization of Capture of Prey

Computer Visualization of Capture of Prey 2

Computer Visualization of Capture of Prey 2

Computer Visualization of Escape Behavior

Computer Visualization of Escape Behavior: Note how the antennules oppose the motion of the tail, preventing the animal from moving backwards when the tail comes up.
Capture time sequence

Capture time sequence

This sequence of images shows the side view and head down view of the capture response of the subtropical carnivorous copepod, Euchaeta rimana (2.4 mm), as recorded using high-speed film (J. Yen, D.M. Fields, M.H. Doall in collaboration with J.S. Strickler). At 0 msec, the maxillepeds (mxp) are tucked in against the body (the arm-like appendage is the mxp in the upper frame and the straight appendages in the lower panel are the paired antennules extending to either side of the body). At 6 msec, the mxp begin to extend with its setae flared (upper panel) and the 'elbows' bowed out. The paired maxillae are also seen to participate in this capture response. At 8 msec, the mxp are fully extended with setae fully flared (upper panel), reaching out far from its body (lower panel). At 16 msec, the show is nearly over with the mxp withdrawing closer to the body (upper panel) and being tucked in among the other cephalic appendages (lower panel). (Slides prepared by R. Foster).
Capture time sequence 2

Capture time sequence 2

This sequence of images shows the side view and head down view of the capture response of the subtropical carnivorous copepod, Euchaeta rimana (2.4 mm), as recorded using high-speed film (J. Yen, D.M. Fields, M.H. Doall in collaboration with J.S. Strickler). At 0 msec, the maxillepeds (mxp) are tucked in against the body (the arm-like appendage is the mxp in the upper frame and the straight appendages in the lower panel are the paired antennules extending to either side of the body). At 6 msec, the mxp begin to extend with its setae flared (upper panel) and the 'elbows' bowed out. The paired maxillae are also seen to participate in this capture response. At 8 msec, the mxp are fully extended with setae fully flared (upper panel), reaching out far from its body (lower panel). At 16 msec, the show is nearly over with the mxp withdrawing closer to the body (upper panel) and being tucked in among the other cephalic appendages (lower panel). (Slides prepared by R. Foster).

 


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